Zero-emission technologies, including current and future renewable technologies as well as nuclear, will need to displace coal to dominate the power sector.
The relative share for hydrocarbons will fall, including gas and biomass combined with carbon capture and storage (CCS).
High energy-efficiency standards in building design and operation must be implemented and enforced.
Greater efficiency will allow fully-electrified buildings to become much more widespread.
Most new construction in developed and emerging economies is already all-electric.
Passenger road travel will increasingly need to be electrified or rely on hydrogen, while longer-distance freight, shipping, and aviation will continue to rely on energy-dense liquid fuels including oil, biofuels, liquefied natural gas, and hydrogen, in years to come.
Activities such as light manufacturing will be able to electrify and decarbonise relatively quickly, but heavy industry could find the transition from hydrocarbon fuels more expensive, longer to achieve, or just not viable.
Eliminating most emissions from industries like steel and cement-making in a reasonable timescale will likely require CCS.
What else must change?
Apart from the four pillars, steps designed to limit emissions from agricultural practices and land-use will also be essential. These account for nearly a quarter of all global emissions today.