The mountains scenario predicts a strong role for government and the introduction of firm and far-reaching policy measures. These help to develop more compact cities and transform the global transport network. New policies unlock plentiful natural gas resources and accelerate carbon capture and storage technology, supporting a cleaner energy system.

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Oceans describes a more prosperous and volatile world. Energy demand surges due to strong economic growth. Power is more widely distributed, rules are difficult to enforce and governments take longer to agree major decisions. Market forces rather than policies shape the energy system: oil and coal remain part of the energy mix but renewable energy also grows.

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